Performance levels can increase with the use of a positive mindset as it facilitates direction and focus. The relationship between mental preparation and positive psychology becomes important and there is evidence of its use in business, education and sport.
It should, therefore, come as no surprise that the use of positive psychology should form part of teacher training and induction programmes. Given the contention that psychology plays an integral role within teaching, it would be purposeful to argue of its merit for teachers in classroom settings.
One key concept that resonates closely with teaching is emotion and its impact during the academic year. Teachers invariably elicit a range of emotions that have the potential to impact students and colleagues.
Therefore, teachers need to understand the complexity of emotions and regulate these accordingly. Effective emotional regulation could lead to more effective and facilitated performance levels. The regulation of emotion can be understood through the theory of emotional intelligence (Goleman, 2004; Mayer & Savoley, 1990).
In examining the nature of emotional intelligence and its importance within teaching, this chapter advocates its value for teachers. Through the use of grounded theory, teachers will be supported to facilitate strategies to enhance and increase emotional intelligence levels for themselves to be used within their professional practice. This chapter will be split into the following sections:
- Outline the definition and conceptual space of emotional intelligence
- Identify research avenues that promote the efficacy of emotional intelligence
- Facilitate the purpose of emotional intelligence in teaching with the use of the Daniel Goleman (2004) model
Definition of emotional intelligence and conceptual space
Emotional intelligence has been defined as ‘the ability to monitor one’s own and others’ feelings and emotion, to discriminate among them and to use this information to guide one’s thinking and actions’ (Salovey & Mayer, 1990, p. 189). A closer inspection of this definition clearly aligns to the work of a teacher.
For example, teachers will be in constant dialogue with their emotions in both favourable and unfavourable situations. A favourable situation may surmount to success during a teaching observation. An unfavourable situation may surmount to an inability to cope with stress and pressures of time management. Based on these situations teachers should be in a position to understand their own feelings and emotions these have on students and colleagues.
The framework of emotional intelligence provides opportunities for teachers to engineer their own thinking and support students and colleagues that they work alongside. It has been outlined by Mayer & Salovey (1990) that people who exhibit higher levels of emotional intelligence are more likely to control their emotions and regulate these appropriately in order to support others.
It is postulated that teachers who are in control of their own emotions will demonstrate positive body language and display effective verbal expressions. Therefore, it is proposed that teachers should employ emotional intelligence to identify their own feelings and that of students and colleagues in accordance with the situation. In consideration of this suggestion, it would be purposeful to evidence previous research that has utilised emotional intelligence in different fields.
Identify research that promotes the efficacy of emotional intelligence in different fields
Extensive research has been carried out on emotional intelligence within the last 30 years (Goleman, 2004; Petrides, Furnham, & Frederickson, 2004; Salovey & Mayer, 1990).
The effectiveness of emotional intelligence has been largely evidenced through meta-analysis research carried out by (Van Rooy & Viswesvaran, 2004). Based on the meta-analysis results it would be prudent to examine how emotional intelligence can influence teachers with evidence from other sectors.
The business sector can demonstrate possible relationships that co-exist within teaching. One would expect teachers and business leaders to lead with a clear philosophy, demonstrate competency and control.
Further, both the business and education sectors share common goals that demand results and success. Arguably, one could resonate that business leaders and teachers who think ahead and act on impulse are likely to direct performers to change strategy and action plans.
Research by Freedman (2010) highlights that leaders with higher levels of emotional intelligence are more likely to achieve greater sales, productivity, profitability, and customer loyalty. In substantiating this evidence further, Freedman (2010) highlights a number of research explorations related to business that identify how awareness, self-management of emotions, motivation, empathy and social skills contribute to greater effectiveness in business.
Arguably, aspects highlighted in the research by Freedman (2010) give credence to their utility and purpose within teaching. Recently, Turner and Baker (2014) have also outlined how sports psychology can support the business sector to utilize transferable skills to increase performance levels.
The education sector is another area that resonates closely to emotional intelligence and teaching. For example, one key characteristic for educators and teaching relates to guidance and support to foster learner development and progress in delivering success.
To supplement this further, practitioners within education deliver excellence to their students to provide a pathway for future success with facilitated learning. A key determinant within education and teaching is motivation, which compromises both intrinsic and extrinsic values.
To supplement the facilitative nature of motivation it is suggestive that practitioners utilize a mixture of strategies. Arguably, teachers require an inner self-drive to enthuse those that they are providing opportunities to succeed. The demonstration of communication is also important to teaching.
Within teaching, it is suggested that coaches regulate their emotions by employing strategies to remain in control during intense situations. A closer examination of emotional intelligence, therefore, is suggestive that teaching demonstrates alignment with emotional regulation. In making this assumption it would be ideal to propose the impact of emotional intelligence and teaching efficacy.
One could argue that there is a close alignment between emotional intelligence and teaching characteristics including game strategy, technique and character development. Research evidence of Thelwell et al. (2006) has considered the relationship between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy to determine coaching relationships.
Thewell et al. (2006) identified the characteristics of coaching efficacy aligned closely with emotional intelligence. The key emphasis of the research outlined that coaches whose levels of emotional intelligence were high were likely to support performers more effectively.
The evidence presented above demonstrates co-existence and effectiveness of emotional intelligence within the business, education and sports sectors. In consideration of this, it has become pertinent to assess the potential relationship between emotional intelligence and teaching to enable opportunities to apply transferable skills within the applied practice.
In consideration of this, the purpose of the next section is to apply emotional intelligence to teaching. It is proposed that emotional intelligence will allow teachers opportunities to increase the self-awareness of practices. Through self-awareness, a teacher could self-regulate their emotions and support students with motivation.
Further, it is proposed that building empathy and addressing relationship management skills would facilitate effective teaching practices.
Propose the Daniel Goleman (2004) model of emotional intelligence and associate its link to teaching
The Daniel Goleman (2004) model of emotional intelligence contains five aspects that align closely with teaching practices. Given the flexibility of this model, it provides opportunities for teachers to employ it through an interchangeable process.
Therefore, an explanation of each aspect of the model and its influence to improve performance levels will be provided. To utilize this influence an emphasis on promoting the use of activities that could help increase emotional intelligence will be offered.
One of the central tenants of the Goleman (2004) model is self-awareness, which is defined as ‘the ability to recognize and understand your moods, emotions, and drives, as well as their effect on others,’ (Goleman, 2004, p. 88). Self-awareness is an integral process as it provides a platform from which a core basis of the emotional intelligence paradigm is built.
Arguably, to demonstrate and facilitate high-quality teaching one could postulate teachers acquire increased levels of self-awareness. Teachers who exhibit high levels of self-awareness better understand their own emotions and regulate these accordingly.
Further, teachers that exhibit increased levels of self-awareness are more likely to assess and evaluate their own sessions and employ self-reflection. Therefore, teachers who are self-aware of their ability to communicate during lessons are most likely to engineer appropriate responses from students. Indeed, teachers who increase their own self-awareness levels are most likely to help facilitate and guide students and colleagues to increase attainment levels.
The process of increasing self-awareness could be formed from facilitative techniques and strategies. In raising self-awareness levels we are educating young and upcoming teachers and those who have been in the profession for a long time the art of understanding their own behaviour and to regulate emotive patterns.
Given the important context of self-awareness and its relationship with effective performance, it is proposed that teachers utilise the process of identification. Through the process of identification, it is hoped that teachers build their own levels of self-awareness.
One example of raising self-awareness is through the process of identifying emotions and their impact during successful and unsuccessful situations within classroom practice, as demonstrated by the worksheet below.
Worksheet 1: Positive and Negative Cycle
It is recommended that teachers focus on thought processes, body language and expressions displayed to outline their emotions during positive and negative cycles. Teachers should compare and contrast various emotions to increase self-awareness levels.
To facilitate levels of self-awareness, it is recommended that teachers implement the use of reflective practice (Knowles, 2007). Reflective practice is pertinent for teaching as it enables an opportunity to identify own strengths and areas to improve.
In application, it is proposed that once emotions have been identified and a period of reflection takes place, opportunities emerge for teachers to implement strategies to facilitate applied practice. Through the use of positive and negative cycles, it is further recommended that teachers utilize the practice of assessing their emotions on a consistent basis.
2) Self-Management of Emotions
The second aspect of the Goleman (2004) model is the self-management of emotions, which is defined as ‘the ability to control or redirect disruptive impulses and moods; the tendency to suspend judgment to think before acting’ (Goleman, 2004, p. 88).
Managing own emotion(s) is important because it offers a sense of control and the ability to think logically. Further, managing own emotions enable teachers to facilitate directive actions. Given the varied role of teachers, it is unsurprising that they will exhibit a continuum of emotions from the students they teach.
Therefore, teachers should employ strategies to facilitate and self-manage emotion. Research by Thelwell et al. (2006) identified that effective coaches arguably are those that can regulate their own emotions. In other words, coaches who fail to regulate their own emotions will not be successful in controlling those of their players.
Good coaches are more likely to be in control of their emotions and regulate these during appropriate situations on a consistent basis. There is indeed an opportunity to assess how this research can apply to teaching practices. Good teachers that have control of the situation are more likely to deal with issues with effective self-awareness. This can apply to all teachers irrespective of experience.
To self-manage emotions, the worksheet below is designed to allow opportunities for teachers to facilitate their own emotions. It is proposed that teachers facilitate opportunities to identify both positive and negative emotions within their own professional practice.
The self-management process worksheet is designed for teachers to examine and assess reaction to both positive and negative emotion outcomes. It is hoped that teachers can through identified interpretation and raised self-awareness regulate and self-manage emotions within a reflective process.
Within the professional practice, teachers are sometimes asked about the distance their students have travelled. This worksheet should actually support teachers to realise the distance they have travelled when managing their emotions during negative and positive situations.
Worksheet 2: The Self-Management Process
The third aspect of the Goleman (2004) model relates to empathy, which is having the ability to understand students and work colleagues and their needs but also finding the balance with own requirements. Therefore, a teacher who demonstrates empathy with their students or colleagues would understand needs and emotions more effectively.
Empathy is an important aspect and teachers should look at facilitating as many opportunities to support students. Through the use of empathy, it would be useful for students to know that peers are responsive to their needs and requirements. Building empathy in teaching is important because teachers with higher empathy levels are able to better understand players.
Benefits of empathy
Opportunities to increase empathy levels
|1) A better understanding of colleagues and students||1) Peer observation with fellow teachers|
|2) Demonstrates opportunities to support other colleagues||2) Video/visual recording of oneself and other teachers|
|3) Allows the implementation of strategies at an early intervention stage||3) Maintain a reflective log or journal to write down how you deal with situations|
|4) Associates with the ability to assess body language||4) Use mirror images – to see yourself in reflection so you can ask questions of your body language, expression or emotions|
|5) Associates with the ability to assess expressions||5) Have regular scenario building meetings to examine empathy levels|
|6) Associates with the ability to assess emotions||6) Associate with practitioners from different backgrounds and teaching specialisms to increase transferable skills|
The worksheet on empathy is designed for teachers to better understand their working practices. In proposal, it is suggestive that teachers identify peers that they work with and assess how they relate to working under pressure.
To facilitate this activity, it is proposed that teachers identify two colleagues (present or from previous experience) and assesses their empathy levels and emotion when working under pressure.
Having considered this process, teachers should seek to understand their behaviour and how they would react to similar situations. This approach provides opportunities for teachers to examine their own levels of empathy in given situations.
Worksheet 3: Empathy
Individual 1 (Positive Teacher)
(Working under pressure)
Individual 2 (Negative Teacher)
(Working under pressure)
(Working under pressure)
The fourth aspect of the Goleman (2004) model is motivation, which is defined as the inner self-drive to achieve goals. Teachers should be in control of their motivation to engineer motivational responses from students. A popular strategy employed in education is the use of goal setting.
It has been demonstrated that when goal setting is employed effectively it increases motivational qualities (Locke & Latham, 1990). To make sure that goal setting is applied and effective it is highly recommended that teachers employ goal setting that includes process and performance goals.
Goal setting provides opportunities for teachers to direct focus to increase motivational properties of their own working practices and students. Given the value of goal setting, it is proposed that it should be employed by teachers to enhance emotional intelligence and motivation.
To provide opportunities to increase motivation levels the goal setting matrix has been designed to support teachers. The goal-setting matrix enables teachers to design purposeful interventions to enhance performance levels.
To elicit short-term gains, it is proposed that teachers utilize the matrix on a three-week period. This short period will allow teachers opportunities to provide individual feedback. It is recommended that teachers introduce mental, technical, physical and nutritional goals to facilitate performance levels.
Further, this matrix will enable teachers to focus on integral aspects relative to performance levels.
Worksheet 4: Goal Setting
5) Relationship Management
The final aspect of the Goleman (2004) model is relationship management, which is the consequence of developing skills and strategies in managing others. Good relationships allow an opportunity for effective team unity and group cohesion.
Arguably, effective group cohesion increases the likelihood of success. Developing effective relationships with peers and students is important as they can exhibit an array of different personality traits.
The management of relationships is important given the varied role of teachers that resonate from continuous professional development, teaching and learning, assessment and report writing.
The following strategies are recommended for teachers to implement within their professional practice to facilitate relationship management:
- Setting ground rules that inform students of roles and responsibilities
- Develop teaching practices that enable students to combine and build group dynamics through lessons and tutorials
- Incorporate methods into tutorials to support students in developing task and social cohesion
- Process avenues that foster intrinsic and extrinsic motivation
The Relationship Management Model
Teachers should consider the model above to demonstrate the importance of effective relationship management. Effective relationship management skills should enable teachers to coerce students to engineer associated group cohesion. Therefore, teachers should be implicit in developing practices that form effective group cohesion.
Building effective group cohesion enables teams to impact performance levels more effectively than those who have ineffective group practices. It is recommended that teachers should also implement the following strategies:
- Foster effective relationships through engagement and reflective practice to enable teachers and students to develop self-awareness.
- Implement varied training methods to encourage students to facilitate problem-solving skills.
- Teachers are encouraged to implement transferable skills from other educational domains to elicit different behaviours but also allow engagement within own practices.
- Allow opportunities for students to engage with performance and social related activities to develop effective group building exercises to increase cohesion levels.
The main emphasis of this chapter was to highlight the benefit of sports psychology and in particular emotional intelligence within teaching. Through enhancing, levels of self-awareness teachers should be in a position to make applied practice more effective.
In addition, teachers who increase their own self-awareness levels will facilitate effective self-regulation and emotional control. Enhanced levels of emotional intelligence would also enable the formation of increased motivation and regulated empathy.
The rubric of emotional intelligence also allows teachers to develop effective relationship management to increase group dynamics. In summary, the evidence clearly stipulates the benefits of increased emotional intelligence to enhance performance levels.
Goleman, D. (2004). What Makes a Leader? Harvard Business Review, 82(1), 82-91.
Knowles, Z., Gilbourne, D., & Tomlinson, V. (2007). Reflections on the application of reflective practice for supervision in applied sport psychology. SPORT PSYCHOL, 21(1), 109-122.
Locke, E. A., & Latham, G. P. (1990). A theory of goal setting and task performance. Englewood Cliffs, NJ:Prentice-Hall.
Petrides, K. V., Furnham, A., & Frederickson, N. (2004). Emotional intelligence. The Psychologist, 17, 574-577.
Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition, and Personality, 9, 185-211.
Thelwell, R., Lane, A. M., Weston, N. J. V., & Greenlees, I. A. (2008). Examining relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. International Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 6, 224-235. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/1612197X.2008.9671863
Turner, M., & Baker, J. (2014) What Business Can Learn from Sport Psychology: Ten Lessons for Peak Professional Performance. Amazon.
Van Rooy, D., & Viswesvaran, C. (2004). Emotional intelligence: A meta-analytic investigation of predictive validity and nomological net. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 65, 71-95.